Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
Disabling And Potentially Irreversible Serious Adverse Reactions Including Tendinitis And Tendon Rupture, Peripheral Neuropathy, And Central Nervous System Effects
Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, have been associated with disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions from different body systems that can occur together in the same patient. Commonly seen adverse reactions include tendinitis, tendon rupture, arthralgia, myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects (hallucinations, anxiety, depression, insomnia, severe headaches, and confusion). These reactions can occur within hours to weeks after starting CIPRO XR. Patients of any age or without pre-existing risk factors have experienced these ufexil adverse reactions [see Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture, Peripheral Neuropathy, Central Nervous System Effects].
Discontinue CIPRO XR immediately at the first signs or symptoms of any serious adverse reaction. In addition, avoid the use of fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, in patients who have experienced any of these serious adverse reactions associated with fluoroquinolones.
Tendinitis And Tendon Rupture
Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, have been associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages [see Disabling And Potentially Irreversible Serious Adverse Reactions Including Tendinitis And Tendon Rupture, Peripheral Neuropathy, And Central Nervous System Effects and ADVERSE REACTIONS]. This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and also been reported in the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendons. Tendinitis and tendon rupture can occur within hours or days of starting CIPRO XR, or as long as several months after completion of fluoroquinolone therapy. Tendinitis and tendon rupture can occur bilaterally.
The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is further increased in patients over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Other factors that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Tendinitis and tendon rupture have also occurred in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors.
Discontinue CIPRO XR immediately if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Avoid fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, in patients who have a history of tendon disorders or have experienced tendinitis or tendon rupture [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, have been associated with an increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of CIPRO XR and may be irreversible in some patients [see Disabling And Potentially Irreversible Serious Adverse Reactions Including Tendinitis And Tendon Rupture, Peripheral Neuropathy, And Central Nervous System Effects and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Discontinue CIPRO XR immediately if the patient experiences symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness, or other alterations in sensations including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense and vibratory sensation and/or motor strength in order to minimize the development of an irreversible condition. Avoid fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO, in patients who have previously experienced peripheral neuropathy [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]
Central Nervous System Effects
Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, have been associated with an increased risk of central nervous system (CNS) effects, including convulsions, increased intracranial pressure (including pseudotumor cerebri), and toxic psychosis. CIPRO XR may also cause central nervous system (CNS) events including: nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares, paranoia, dizziness, confusion, tremors, hallucinations, depression, and psychotic reactions that have progressed to suicidal ideations/thoughts and self-injurious behavior such as attempted or completed suicide. These reactions may occur following the first dose. Advise patients receiving ciprofloxacin to inform their healthcare provider immediately if these reactions occur, discontinue the drug, and institute appropriate care. CIPRO XR, like other fluoroquinolones, is known to trigger seizures or lower the seizure threshold. As with all fluoroquinolones, use CIPRO XR with caution in epileptic patients and patients with known or suspected CNS disorders that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (for example, severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, previous history of convulsion, reduced cerebral blood flow, altered brain structure, or stroke), or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (for example., certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction). Use CIPRO XR when the benefits of treatment exceed the risks, since these patients are endangered because of possible undesirable CNS side effects. Cases of status epilepticus have been reported. If seizures occur, discontinue CIPRO XR [see ADVERSE REACTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Exacerbation Of Myasthenia Gravis
Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse reactions, including deaths and requirement for ventilatory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in patients with myasthenia gravis. Avoid CIPRO XR in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis [see ADVERSE REACTIONS and PATIENT INFORMATION].
Other Serious And Sometimes Fatal Adverse Reactions
Other serious and sometimes fatal adverse reactions, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including ciprofloxacin. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following:
- Fever, rash, or severe dermatologic reactions (for example, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome);
- Vasculitis; arthralgia; myalgia; serum sickness;
- Allergic pneumonitis;
- Interstitial nephritis; acute renal insufficiency or failure;
- Hepatitis; jaundice; acute hepatic necrosis or failure;
- Anemia, including hemolytic and aplastic; thrombocytopenia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; leukopenia; agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; and/or other hematologic abnormalities.
Discontinue CIPRO XR immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity and supportive measures instituted [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions, some following the first dose, have been reported in patients receiving quinolone therapy, including CIPRO XR. Some reactions were accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, loss of consciousness, tingling, pharyngeal or facial edema, dyspnea, urticaria, and itching. Only a few patients had a history of hypersensitivity reactions. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine and other resuscitation measures, including oxygen, intravenous fluids, intravenous antihistamines, corticosteroids, pressor amines, and airway management, including intubation, as indicated [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS and PATIENT INFORMATION].
Cases of severe hepatotoxicity, including hepatic necrosis, life-threatening hepatic failure, and fatal events, have been reported with CIPRO XR. Acute liver injury is rapid in onset (range 1.39 days), and is often associated with hypersensitivity. The pattern of injury can be hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed. Most patients with fatal outcomes were older than 55 years old. In the event of any signs and symptoms of hepatitis (such as anorexia, jaundice, dark urine, pruritus, or tender abdomen), discontinue treatment immediately.
There can be a temporary increase in transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, or cholestatic jaundice, especially in patients with previous liver damage, who are treated with CIPRO XR [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Serious Adverse Reactions With Concomitant Theophylline Use
Serious and fatal reactions have been reported in patients receiving concurrent administration of CIPRO XR and theophylline. These reactions have included cardiac arrest, seizure, status epilepticus, and respiratory failure. Instances of nausea, vomiting, tremor, irritability, or palpitation have also occurred.
Although similar serious adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving theophylline alone, the possibility that these reactions may be potentiated by CIPRO XR cannot be eliminated. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor serum levels of theophylline and adjust dosage as appropriate [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including CIPRO XR, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing isolates of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and institute surgical evaluation as clinically indicated [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Prolongation Of The QT Interval
Some fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and cases of arrhythmia. Cases of torsade de pointes have been reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR.
Avoid CIPRO XR in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, risk factors for QT prolongation or torsade de pointes (for example, congenital long QT syndrome, uncorrected electrolyte imbalance, such as hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia and cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, or bradycardia), and patients receiving Class IA antiarrhythmic agents (quinidine, procainamide), or Class III antiarrhythmic agents (amiodarone, sotalol), tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides, and antipsychotics. Elderly patients may also be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval [see ADVERSE REACTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
Musculoskeletal Disorders In Pediatric Patients And Arthropathic Effects In Animals
An increased incidence of adverse reactions compared to controls, including reactions related to joints and/or surrounding tissues, has been observed [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In pre-clinical studies, oral administration of CIPRO XR caused lameness in immature dogs. Histopathological examination of the weight-bearing joints of these dogs revealed permanent lesions of the cartilage. Related quinoloneclass drugs also produce erosions of cartilage of weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species [see Use In Specific Populations and Nonclinical Toxicology].
Moderate to severe photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions, the latter of which may manifest as exaggerated sunburn reactions (for example, burning, erythema, exudation, vesicles, blistering, edema) involving areas exposed to light (typically the face, “V” area of the neck, extensor surfaces of the forearms, dorsa of the hands), can be associated with the use of quinolones including CIPRO XR after sun or UV light exposure. Therefore, avoid excessive exposure to these sources of light. Discontinue CIPRO XR if phototoxicity occurs [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Development Of Drug Resistant Bacteria
Prescribing CIPRO XR Tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Potential Risks With Concomitant Use Of Drugs Metabolized By Cytochrome P450 1A2 Enzymes
Ciprofloxacin is an inhibitor of the hepatic CYP1A2 enzyme pathway. Co-administration of ciprofloxacin and other drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 (for example, theophylline, methylxanthines, caffeine, tizanidine, ropinirole, clozapine, olanzapine and zolpidem) results in increased plasma concentrations of the co-administered drug and could lead to clinically significant pharmacodynamic adverse reactions of the co-administered drug [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Interference With Timely Diagnosis Of Syphilis
Ciprofloxacin has not been shown to be effective in the treatment of
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