Timothy C. Hain, MD Page last modified: August 7, 2017
The purpose of this page is to list drugs well known to be toxic to the ear. It is not all-inclusive and it should not be relied upon for medical care.
|Drug||Vestibulotoxicity||Hearing Toxicity||Toxic Level|
|Cisplatin||Minor||69%||total dose > 200 mg/sq meter.|
Comment: While reportedly ototoxic, chemotherapeutic medications are rarely encountered as a source of vestibular dysfunction. Cisplatin is the most widely used anticancer drug currently and unfortunately, it is cochleotoxic, and may injure supporting cells (Ramirez-Camacho et al, 2004). The toxicity begins in the outer hair cells (Reavis et al, 2011) and for this reason DPOAE's have been suggested to be a reasonable method of detecting toxicity. The toxicity of cisplatin is synergistic with gentamicin, and high doses of cisplatin have been reported to cause total deafness. In animals, cisplatin ototoxicity is related to lipid peroxidation and the use of antioxidant agents such as vitamin E are protective (Rybak et al, 2000; Kalkanis et al, 2004).
There are many chemotherapy agents which have no credible evidence for ototoxicity, and also many in whom there are single case reports of dubious significance. In general, drugs that are "broad" in their effects on the body would be expected to also have some ototoxicity. Drugs that are very narrow, perhaps aimed at cell markers, would not be reasonably expected to be ototoxic. Some chemotherapy drugs are used in treatment of inner ear disease -- i.e. cytoxin, methotrexate, and Enbrel. These would obviously not be expected to be ototoxic.
Chemotherapy ototoxicity references
- Freilich RJ, Kraus DH, Budnick AS, Bayer LA, Finlay JL. Hearing loss in children with brain tumors treated with cisplatin and carboplatin based high-dosed chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow rescue. Med Pediatr Oncol 1996 Feb;26(2):95-100.
- RAMIREZ-CAMACHO R, Garcia-Berrocal JR, Bujan J, Martin-Marero A, et al. Supporting cells as a target of cisplatin-induced inner ear damage: therapeutic implications. Laryngoscope 2004;114:533-7.
- Reavis KM and many others. Distortion-ProductOtoacousticEmissionTest Performance for Ototoxicity Monitoring Ear&Hearing2011;32;61–74
- Rubin JS, Wadler S, Beitler JJ, Haynes H, Rozenblit A, McGill F, Goldberg G, Runowicz C. Audiological findings in a Phase I protocol investigating the effect of WR 2721, high-dose cisplatin and radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma. J Laryngol Otol 1995 Aug;109(8):744-747.
- Rybak LP, Husain K, Morris C, Whitworth C, Somani S. Effect of protective agents against cisplatin ototoxicity. Am J Otol 21:513-520, 2000
- KALKANIS JG, Whitworth C, Rybak LP. Vitamin E reduces cisplatin ototoxicity. Laryngoscope 2004;114:538-42.
- Salvinelli F, Casale M, Vincenzi B, Santini D, Di Peco V, Firrisi L, Onori N, Greco F, Tonini G.Bilateral irreversible hearing loss associated with the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy: a unusual side effect. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2003 Mar;22(1):155-8
ANTIBIOTICS WITH GOOD EVIDENCE FOR OTOTOXICITY
|Drug||Vestibulotoxicity||Hearing Toxicity||Toxic Level|
|Azithromycin||not known||occasional||Very high dose required|
|Chloramphenicol||yes||sporadic reports only|
|Dihydrostreptomycin||minor toxic||very toxic|
|Erythromycin||yes||High IV doses only|
|Gentamicin||8.6%||minor||Usually 2 weeks|
|Neomycin||minor||very toxic||In topical ear drops|
|Polymyxin B||In ear drops|
|Tobramycin||Yes||minor in 6%||Less toxic than Gentamicin|
|Vancomycin||nontoxic or rarely toxic||none to moderate||synergistic with gentamicin|
Comments about antibiotics with well recognized ototoxicity.
Gentamicin is presently the biggest problem antibiotic with respect to ototoxicity as most of the other ototoxic antibiotics have been replaced. Netilmicin has equivalent ototoxicity to Gentamicin (Tange et al, 1995). Gentamicin was released for clinical use in the earlier 1960's. (Matz, 1993); Hearing toxicity generally involves the high frequencies first. Vestibulotoxicity is the major problem rather than hearing toxicity. Most persons with gentamicin toxicity have hearing appropriate for their age. Certain persons with mitochondrial deletions in the 12S subunit are much more susceptible to Gentamicin than the general population. Commercial tests are presently available to detect this deletion (the A1555 deletion). The prevalence of this mutation is not clear, but 1-2% of the population is estimated based on available data. It is likely that there are many other genetic mutations that confer susceptibility, so far undocumented by present day medicine.
Neomycin, another aminoglycoside, was isolated in 1949. It is now used mainly topically because of renal toxicity and ototoxicity (to hearing). Neomycin is poorly absorbed from the normal gastrointestinal tract -- about 97% is excreted in the feces. Neomycin is quickly and almost totally absorbed from body surfaces (except the urinary bladder) after local irrigation and when applied topically in association with surgical procedures. With repeated dosing, progressive accumulation occurs in the inner ear. Release occurs slowly over several weeks after dosing has been stopped. Hearing ototoxicity from oral absorption of Neomycin has been reported (Rappaport et al, 1986) and there may also be toxicity from ear drops in patients with perforated ear drums. This issue is still unsettled (as of 12/1/98). Neomycin toxicity is often delayed in onset and may not be noted until long after neomycin has been discontinued (Information primarily from the manufacturers literature, Teva Pharmaceuticals, 11/1999).
Kanamycin, also an aminoglycoside, was developed in 1957, and has been replaced by newer aminoglycosides such as gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmicin, and amikacin. It is not thought to be as ototoxic as neomycin.
Minocycline in large doses is associated with dizziness, sometimes attributed to vestibular side effects.
Streptomycin, the first clinically used aminoglycoside is now used primarily in treating tuberculosis because many gram-negative bacteria are resistant and because of substantial ototoxicity. Streptomycin is now rarely used in the United States.
Tobramycin is only rarely associated with ototoxicity (about 1/150 according to Neu et al, 1986), but there is clear evidence that it can produce a vestibular syndrome similar to gentamicin (Barrsma, 1979; Lehmann, 1976). Most cases of Tobramycin toxicity have occurred in persons with renal impairment. There has been little ototoxicity seen in persons with repeated dosing (Pedersen et al, 1987; Thomesen et al, 1979), which suggests that it may be handled differently by the ear. It is suspected that tobramycin is ototoxic to hearing in neonates but there is little evidence to prove this(de Hoog et al, 2002; 2003). In animals, tobramycin is much less ototoxic than gentamicin (Bamonte et al, 1986; Kitasato, 1990; McCormick et al, 1985; Petorossi et al, 1986).
Vancomycin, by itself, appears to have only minor ototoxicity, but it potentiates the ototoxicity of gentamicin as well as (probably) other aminoglycosides such as Tobramycin. Occasional persons do appear to have substantial vestibular toxicity from Vancomycin. The reason why occasional persons are more sensitive is not clear but might resemble the situation with Gentamicin where there is a susceptibility mutation.
There is a new drug, Televancin (VIBATIV), which is similar to vancomycin, used for variants of MRSA. It appears to be a little more toxic than vancomycin, at least for the kidneys. It is probably similar to vancomycin in terms of its interaction with gentamicin.
References concerning specific antibiotics:
Related to tobramycin
- Baarsma, E. A. and E. Rijntjes (1979). "Vestibulo-toxicity of tobramycin." J Laryngol Otol93(7): 725-7.
- Bamonte, F., A. Monopoli, E. Ongini, et al. (1986). "Comparative actions of four aminoglycoside antibiotics on the vestibular function in guinea-pigs." Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 282(1): 161-76.
- de Hoog, M., B. A. van Zanten, W. C. Hop, et al. (2003). "Newborn hearing screening: tobramycin and vancomycin are not risk factors for hearing loss." J Pediatr142(1): 41-6.
- Kitasato, I., M. Yokota, S. Inouye, et al. (1990). "Comparative ototoxicity of ribostamycin, dactimicin, dibekacin, kanamycin, amikacin, tobramycin, gentamicin, sisomicin and netilmicin in the inner ear of guinea pigs." Chemotherapy36(2): 155-68.
- Lehmann, W., R. Hausler and F. A. Waldvogel (1976). "A clinical study on the ototoxic effects of tobramycin." Arch Otorhinolaryngol 212(3): 203-11.
- McCormick, G. C., E. Weinberg, R. J. Szot, et al. (1985). "Comparative ototoxicity of netilmicin, gentamicin, and tobramycin in cats." Toxicol Appl Pharmacol77(3): 479-89.
- Neu, H. C. and C. L. Bendush (1976). "Ototoxicity of tobramycin: a clinical overview." J Infect Dis 134 Suppl: S206-18.
- Pedersen, S. S., T. Jensen, D. Osterhammel, et al. (1987). "Cumulative and acute toxicity of repeated high-dose tobramycin treatment in cystic fibrosis." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 31(4): 594-9.
- Pettorossi, V. E., F. Bamonte, P. Errico, et al. (1986). "Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in guinea pigs. Impairment induced by aminoglycoside antibiotics." Acta Otolaryngol101(5-6): 378-88.
- Thomsen, J. and B. Friis (1979). "High dosage tobramycin treatment of children with cystic fibrosis. Bacteriological effect and clinical ototoxicity." Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol1(1): 33-40.
Antibiotics for which there is some suspicion of ototoxicity
|Antibiotic with suspected ototoxicity||Comment|
|Floxins||Anecdotal evidence of dizziness|
Comment: Although there is some evidence for dizziness, it is unlikely that the floxins are ototoxic.
Occasionally a persistent ataxia is reported following use of a floxin (e.g. ciprofloxacin, etc). All cases so far are anecdotal and there is no strong evidence for ototoxicity. Toxicity, if it exists, might involve some other structure (such as the cerebellum). Because toxicity is so sporadic it may require both exposure as well as a genetic predisposition for toxicity.
Also, some of the floxins can have an affect on blood glucose. Gatifloxicin (Tequin) can cause severe persistent hypoglycemia in elderly diabetics taking hypoglycemic drugs, and may cause hyperglycemia in patients with no history of diabetes (Medical letter, 2003). While these effects are not ototoxic, they might account for some dizziness side effects, which should respond to withdrawal of medication.
|Antibiotics Generally Considered Safe|
|Macrolides (e.g. Azithromycin and Erythromycin), except in very high doses.|
Macrolides and other antibiotics that are only slightly ototoxic:
Etminan et al (2016) examined data from more than 6 million cases, and concluded that "there does not appear to be an increased risk of SNHL in patients treated with macrolide antibiotics." More recently, Ikeda et al (2017) concluded that "SNHL may follow macrolide exposure, even at standard oral doses." This was based on a review of 44 publications, only 3 of which were prospective studies, the rest being retrospective (i.e. case reports, no controls). We find the conclusion of Ikeda et al implausible and think that Etiman's conclusions are the more reasonable overall.
Erythromycin, although not an aminoglycoside like gentamicin, is ototoxic in high intravenous doses. (McGhan et al. 2003). Pathologically McGhan and Merchant reported strial edema in all of the cochlear turns (in a single case report). This might account for the relatively flat threshold loss with good speech discrimination that is the hallmark of erythromycin ototoxicity. It might also account for some reversibly to the hearing loss.
Azithromycin, is a macrolide. Nevertheless, there are occasional reports of ototoxicity, when there have been prolonged and high levels. The high levels generally require intravenous dosing.
Other types of antibiotics.
Clindamycin has not been reported to cause ototoxicity, by itself, and is probably safe.
Chloramphenicol has been sporadically reported to be ototoxic systemically.
Metronidizole (Flagyl) has been reported on several occasions to be ototoxic (Blake and Butt 1984; Hibberd, Nicoll et al. 1984; Hibberd, Nicoll et al. 1984; Lawford and Sorrell 1994; Iqbal, Murthy et al. 1999; Riggs et al, 1990). Metronidizole toxicity fortunately appears to be rare and documented only by sporadic case reports.
References r.e. Metronidizole:
- Blake, P. and W. E. Butt (1984). "Ototoxicity of metronidazole." N Z Med J 97(753): 241.
- Hibberd, A. D., R. J. Nicoll, et al. (1984). "Deafness is an adverse reaction to the prophylactic use of metronidazole." N Z Med J 97(750): 128.
- Hibberd, A. D., R. J. Nicoll, et al. (1984). "Ototoxicity of metronidazole." N Z Med J 97(754): 275.
- Iqbal, S. M., J. G. Murthy, et al. (1999). "Metronidazole ototoxicity--report of two cases." J Laryngol Otol 113(4): 355-7.
- Lawford, R. and T. C. Sorrell (1994). "Amebic abscess of the spleen complicated by metronidazole-induced neurotoxicity: case report." Clin Infect Dis 19(2): 346-8.
References r.e. macrolides:
- Bizjak, E. D., M. T. Haug, 3rd, R. J. Schilz, et al. (1999). "Intravenous azithromycin-induced ototoxicity." Pharmacotherapy19(2): 245-8.
- Etminan M, Westerberg BD, Kozak FK, Guo MY, Carleton BC. Risk of sensorineural hearing loss with macrolide antibiotics: A nested case-control study.Laryngoscope. 2016 Aug 6. doi: 10.1002/lary.26190. [Epub ahead of print].
- Ikeda AK, Prince AA, Chen JX, Lieu JEC, Shin JJ. [Epub ahead of print] Macrolide-associated sensorineural hearing loss: A systemic review. Laryngoscope. 2017 Aug 3. doi: 10.1002/lary.26799.
- McGhan LJ and Merchant SN (2003). "Erythromycin ototoxicity." Otol Neurotol 24(4): 701-2.
- Mamikoglu, B. and O. Mamikoglu (2001). "Irreversible sensorineural hearing loss as a result of azithromycin ototoxicity. A case report." Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol110(1): 102.
- Ress, B. D. and E. M. Gross (2000). "Irreversible sensorineural hearing loss as a result of azithromycin ototoxicity. A case report." Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol109(4): 435-7.
- Tseng, A. L., L. Dolovich and I. E. Salit (1997). "Azithromycin-related ototoxicity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus." Clin Infect Dis 24(1): 76-7.
- Uzun, C., M. Koten, M. K. Adali, et al. (2001). "Reversible ototoxic effect of azithromycin and clarithromycin on transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions in guinea pigs." J Laryngol Otol115(8): 622-8.
- Uzun, C. (2003). "Tinnitus due to clarithromycin." J Laryngol Otol 117(12): 1006-1007.
- Wallace, M. R., L. K. Miller, M. T. Nguyen, et al. (1994). "Ototoxicity with azithromycin." Lancet343(8891): 241.
Other useful information about ototoxins
Ear drops may contain antibiotics, some of which can be ototoxic when administered to persons with perforated ear drums. Cortisporin otic solution appears to be the most ototoxic to the cochlea of guinea pigs, with much less toxicity for gentamicin drops. Ofloxacin ear drops have negligible toxicity (Barlow et al, 1995). Neomycin containing ear drops have been reported to contribute to hearing loss (Podoshin et al, 1989) in a relatively small way, but a definitive assessment of risk has not yet been made. No cases have been reported of tobramycin drops resulting in ototoxicity. The vestibulotoxicity of most ear drops has so far not been studied, although case reports suggest that gentamicin containing drops are toxic when given over long periods of time.
There are several known interactions between families of ototoxic medications. Loop diuretics (see following) potentiate aminoglycoside toxicity. Vancomycin is synergistic with gentamicin in that it is more likely to cause toxicity, as is noise. Vancomycin, by itself in appropriate doses, is not especially ototoxic (Gendeh et al, 1998).
Delayed ototoxicity, meaning essentially toxicity which continues for several months after the drug has been stopped, has been well documented because the aminoglycosides are retained within the inner ear much longer than in the blood. Gentamicin has been reported to persist for more than 6 months in animals. Neomycin, streptomycin and kanamycin are also known to be eliminated from the inner ear slowly (Thomas et al, 1992)
References regarding ototoxicity of antibiotics:
- Barlow DW, Duckert LG, Kreig CS, Gates GA. Ototoxicity of topical otomicrobial agents. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 1995 Mar;115(2):231-235
- Bates RD, Nahata MC, Jones JW, McCoy K, Yong G, Cox S, Barson WJ. Pharmacokinetics and safety of tobramycin after once-daily administration in patients with cystic fibrosis. Chest 112(5):1208-13, 1997. This paper notes no ototoxicity in 18 patients for once/day administration.
- Conlon BJ, McSwain SD, Smith DW. Topical gentamicin and ethacryinic acid: effects on cochlear function. Laryngoscope 108(7):1087-9, 1998.
- de Hoog M, van Zanten GA, Hoeve LJ, Blom AM, van den Anker JN. A pilot case control follow-up study on hearing in children treated with tobramycin in the newborn period. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2002; 65: 225-32.
- Edson RS, Terrell CL. The Aminoglycosides. Mayo Clin Proc 1991 Nov;66(11):1158-1164.
- Gendeh B, Gibb AG, Aziz N, Kong N, Zahir Z. Vancomycin administration in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: the risk of ototoxicity. Otol HNS 1998:118:551-8.
- Israel KS, Welles JS, Black HR. Aspects of the pharmacology and toxicology of tobramycin in animals and humans. J Infect Dis 1976 Aug;134 Suppl:S97-S103.
- Masur H, Whelton PK, Whelton A. Neomycin toxicity revisited. Arch Surg 1976 Jul;111(7):822-825.
- Matz GJ. Aminoglycoside cochlear ototoxicity. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 1993 Oct;26(5):705-712.
- Medical Letter. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia with fluoroquinolones. Vol 45 (issue 1162) Aug 14, 2003
- Nikolaidis P, Vas S, Lawson V, Kennedy-Vosu L, Bernard A, Abraham G, Izatt S, Khanna S, Bargman JM, Oreopoulos DG. Is intraperitoneal tobramycin ototoxic in CAPD patients? Perit Dial Int 1991;11(2):156-161.
- Rappaport BZ, Fausti SA, Schechter MA, et al. A prospective study of high-frequency auditory function in patients receiving oral neomycin. Scand Audiol 15:67-7, 1986
- Riggs LC, Shofner WP, Shah AR, Young MR, Hain TC, Matz GJ. Ototoxicity resulting from combined administration of metronidizazole and gentamicin. Am J Otol 20, 4, 1990, 430-
- Sacristin JA, Soto JA, de Cos MA. Erythromycin-induced hypoacusis: 11 new cases and literature review. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 27(7-8), 950-5, 1993.
- Swanson DJ, Sung RJ, Fine MJ, Orloff JJ, Chu SY, Yu VL. Erythromycin ototoxicity: prospective assessment with serum concentrations and audiograms in a study of patients with pneumonia. Am J Med 1992 Jan;92(1):61-68.
- Tange RA, Dreschler WA, Prins JM, Buller HR, Kuijper EJ, Speelman P. Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity of gentamicin vs netilmicin in patients with serious infections. A randomized clinical trial. Clin Otolaryngol 1995 Apr;20(2):118-123.
- Thomas J, Marion MS, Hinojosa R. Neomycin ototoxicity. Am J Otolaryngol, 13, 1992, 54-55
- Vasquez R, Mattucci K. A proposed protocol for monitoring ototoxicity in patients who take cochleo- or vestibulotoxic drugs. ENT J. 82:3, 181-184
- Wilhelm MP. Vancomycin. Mayo Clin Proc 1991 Nov;66(11):1165-1170
|Lasix (furosemide)||No||Yes||Rarely significant|
|Bumex (bumetanide)||No||Yes||Less than Lasix|
|Edecrin (ethacrynic acid)||No||Yes||Same as lasix|
Diuretics generally considered Safe: Chlorthiazide
Diuretics are rarely a source of vestibulotoxicity. They are possibly a source of hearing disturbance. They may be synergistic with other aminoglycoside ototoxins such as gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin and kanamycin. It seems prudent to attempt to avoid exposure to these agents if hearing is impaired.
Rybak LP. Furosemide ototoxicity: clinical and experimental aspects. Laryngoscope 1985 Sep;95(9 Pt 2 Suppl 38):1-14.
|mefloquine (Lariam)||Probable||Yes||Tinnitus and dizziness|
|Chloroquine (Malaquin)||No reports||Yes||Tinnitus|
Comment: While quinine ingestion can cause a syndrome including tinnitus, sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo (Obasikene et al, 2012), quinine derivative drugs are rarely by themselves a source of hearing disturbance. Some quinine derivatives, such as mefloquine (Larium) taken for malaria prevention rarely cause significant and long-lasting tinnitus. There is also some suspicion of vestibulotoxicity and CNS toxicity (Dow et al, 2006). Recent studies suggest that quinine impairs outer hair cell motility (Jarboe and Hallworth, ARO abstracts, 1999, #237).
- Bortoli R, Santiago M.Chloroquine ototoxicity.Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Nov;26(11):1809-10. Epub 2007 Jun 27.
- Cardoso, B, et al. Brasil. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 1996; 29(3):251-257.
- De Souza JM, et al. A phase II/III double_blind, dose_finding clinical trial of a combination of mefloquine, sulfadoxine, and pyrimethamine (Fansimef) in falciparum malaria. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1987; 65: 357_361.
- Dow G and others. Mefloquine induces dose-related neurological effects in a rat model. Antimicrobial agents and Chemo, 2006, 50: 1045-1053
- Lysack, JT, et al. A severe adverse reaction to mefloquine and chloroquine prophylaxis. Australian Family Physician 1998; 27(12): 1119-1120.
- Fusetti M, Eibenstein A, Corridore V, Hueck S, Chiti-Batelli S: Meflochina ed ototossicit : descrizione di tre casi. Clinica Terapeutica (Roma) 1999; 150: 379-382. An abstract of this study can be found in PubMed:
- Obasikene, G., P. Adobamen, et al. (2012). "Prevalence of ototoxicity in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin city: a 5-year review." Niger J Clin Pract 15(4): 453-457.
We thank Lariam Action USA ( web site http://www.lariaminfo.org/),for supplying some of the references above related to Lariam.
ASPIRIN, NSAIDS and other ANALGESICS
Aspirin and Nsaids (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents) -- are commonly used, and apparently are only toxic to hearing. These include Advil, Nuprin, Motrin (Ibuprofen), Aleve, Naprosyn, Anaprox (Naproxen), Feldene, Dolobid, Indocin, Lodine, Relafin, Toradol, Volteran, Salicylates: Aspirin, disalcid, Bufferin, Ecotrin, Trilisate, Ascriptin, Empirin, Excedrin, Fiorinal. Arthrotec (diclofenac and misoprostel) has been associated with tinnitus and hearing reduction (Bombardier, Peloso et al. 1995).
Kyle and associates performed a systemic review of the effect of aspirin, and summarized 37 studies containing 185,155 participants. Aspirin intake grater than 1.95 g/day (i.e. about 6 "regular" aspirin tablets), was associated with worsened hearing. They reported that no data was available to "confirm that long-term doses of 81 mg or 325 mg daily have no hearing consequences". In other words, it is possible that daily "low dose" aspirin may also cause hearing deterioration, presumably to a lesser extent. (Kyle et al, 2014).
Oddly, NSAIDs such as indomethacin appear to protect mouse cochlea against acoustic injury. (Hoshino et al, 2008). Of course, what happens in humans is unclear.
Hydrocodone in combination with acetaminophen (e.g Vicodin) has also been associated with hearing loss (Friedman, House et al. 2000; Oh, Ishiyama et al. 2000). A similar case of deafness associated with methodone has also been reported (Vorasubin et al, 2013). Complete deafness, treated with a cochlear implant, can occur in persons addicted to these medications. This clinical picture is sometimes misdiagnosed as autoimmune inner ear disease.
Fiorinal contains aspirin, which is well known to be an ototoxin capable of causing a sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus (Brien 1993).
Over the counter headache powders also commonly contain aspirin or related compounds (salicylates) and therefore have a potential for causing hearing toxicity.
Medications for ulcerative colitis, such as Asacol contain salycylates. While they are designed to be mainly confined to the large bowel and rectum, nevertheless, if 20% is absorbed of a 400 mg tablet, and 1.2 to 1.6 grams is given/day, it is easy to see that this is the equivalent of roughly 300mg of salycilate -- which is enough to affect the inner ear.
Permanent hearing disturbances are possible but rare. They are most commonly seen in individuals who take aspirin in large doses for long periods, such as for treatment of severe arthritis. Occasionally persons with Menieres syndrome will develop a hearing disturbance from a small amount of a NSAID.
Naproxen has been associated with deafness (Kewitz 1986; McKinnon and Lassen 1998). I have also encountered patients reporting tinnitus and hearing reductions after taking Naproxen.
Acetaminophen is not generally thought to be ototoxic although in combination with hydrocodone as noted above there have been cases of hearing loss.
Styrene, toluene, and trichloroethylene have been reported to be ototoxic. These substances are highly lipid soluble and can also be neurotoxic. Their toxicity may be due to effects on central structures rather than the ear itself.
- Bombardier, C., P. M. Peloso, et al. (1995). "Salsalate, a nonacetylated salicylate, is as efficacious as diclofenac in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Salsalate-Diclofenac Study Group." J Rheumatol 22(4): 617-24.
- Brien, J. A. (1993). "Ototoxicity associated with salicylates. A brief review." Drug Saf 9(2): 143-8.
- Friedman RA and others. Profound hearing loss associated with hydrocodone/acetaminophen abuse. Am J Otol 21:188-191, 2000
- Hoshino, T., et al. (2008). "The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs protect mouse cochlea against acoustic injury." Tohoku J Exp Med 216(1): 53-59.
- Kewitz, H. (1986). "Rare but serious risks associated with non-narcotic analgesics: clinical experience." Med Toxicol 1 Suppl 1: 86-92.
- Kyle ME1, Wang JC2, Shin JJ3. Ubiquitous Aspirin: A Systematic Review of Its Impact on Sensorineural Hearing Loss. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Oct 30. pii: 0194599814553930. [Epub ahead of print]
- McKinnon, B. J. and L. F. Lassen (1998). "Naproxen-associated sudden sensorineural hearing loss." Mil Med 163(11): 792-3.
- Oh, A. K., et al. (2000). "Deafness associated with abuse of hydrocodone/acetaminophen." Neurology 54(12): 2345.
- Vorasubin N, Calzada AP, Ishiyama A.Am J Otolaryngol.Methadone-induced bilateral severe sensorineural hearing loss. 2013 Sep 16. pii: S0196-0709(13)00202-0. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2013.08.011. [Epub ahead of print]
Although nearly all antidepressants impair balance, the mechanism of this effect is uncertain, and probably not due to ototoxicity.
A single case has been reported of deafness following ingestion of sildenafil. This involved a 44 year old man who took 50 mg every day for 15 days (Mukherjee and Shivakumar, 2006).
Amiodarone has been reported to be associated with bilateral vestibular weakness, presumably through damage to the vestibular nerve. Amiodarone has many potential mechanisms of ataxia, and this is just one of them. Rhythmol (propafenone) may have a similar problem.
- Mukherjee B, Shivakumar T.A case of sensorineural deafness following ingestion of sildenafil. J Laryngol Otol. 2006 Dec 14;:1-3
MISCELLANEOUS OTOTOXIC DRUGS
|Desferroxamine||No||Yes||May protect against gentamicin toxicity|
|Calcium Channel blockers||Probably||No evidence of this to date|
|Tacrolimus||Yes||Weak evidence (see Rifal, 2006)|
Calcium channel blockers are often used to treat vestibular disorders, and by this reasoning, might be vestibular suppressants. In the authors practice, rarely calcium channel blockers appear to be associated with bilateral vestibular paresis, but nothing has written about this in the literature.
Tricyclic antidepressants impair balance (Li et al, 1996). This is probably due to their anticholinergic side effects. According to the same author, SSRI type antidepressants do not affect balance.
- Li X, et al. Long-term effects of antidepressants on balance, equilibrium and postural reflexes. Psychiatry Res 1996 63(2-3), 191-6
- Styles LA, Vichinsky EP. Ototoxicity in hemoglobinopathy patients chelated with desferrioxamine. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1996 Feb;18(1):42-45.
- Rifal and many others. A new side effect of immunosuppression: High incidence of hearing impairment after liver transplantation. Liver Transplantation 12: 411-415, 2006
Other Toxins (not medications):
- Carbon monoxide: There is a small literature, nearly all published in languages other than English, concerning cochlear and vestibulotoxicity from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. To us, it seems highly unlikely that CO would injure the vestibular apparatus in a selective fashion, and we consider CO induced isolated vestibular toxicity as highly unlikely.
- Mercury and lead are heavy metals which are ototoxic. Practically speaking, these agents are infrequent causes of hearing disturbance.
- Toluene affects the ear (outer hair cells) causing hearing loss, as well as the brain.
- Noise: e.g. Rock concerts, power equipment, gunfire.
- Noise exposure is the most common source of hearing loss. Industrial exposure characteristically causes a "noise notch", with the hearing loss at mid-high frequencies bilaterally. Guns and other unilateral sources of noise cause more circumscribed lesions. Noise is often also a co-factor in medication type ototoxicity. Those who have hearing loss from an ototoxic antibiotic, for example, may be at much greater risk from noise. There is some evidence that heavy salt eaters are more susceptible to damage from noise.
Protection from ototoxins
Little is known about protection. Noise avoidance is likely important, but even here the story is complicated. Moderate amounts of noise may protect from extreme amounts of noise. Anti-oxidants protect partially from noise or toxins in several animal models. In theory, protection from oxidative stress might be obtained by prevention of reactive oxygen species, neutralization of toxic products, and blockage of the apoptosis pathway. Toxic waste products can be neutralized with glutathione and derivatives (Rybak et al, 2000). Vitamin E may protect against cisplatin ototoxicity(Kalkanis, Whitworth et al. 2004). Apoptosis can be blocked using capsase inhibitors. Intratympanic dexamethasone has been reported to protect from cis-platin ototoxicity in rodents and humans (Murphy and Daniel, 2011; Marshak et al, 2014).
Doglan et al (2016) reported that misoprotol can protect from cisplatin-induced ototoxicity (in rats).
At this writing, all of these approaches are investigational and are not being used clinically. Most also require delivery systems that go directly into the inner ear, and are therefore impractical for clinical use (Van de Water and others, ARO abstracts, 1999, #21).
Grading of ototoxicity.
Recently effort has been put towards developing methods of grading ototoxicity that are clinically relevant, and in particular, related to hearing aid needs (Chang, 2011). Far more thought is needed about this.
- Chang KW.Clinically accurate assessment and grading of ototoxicity. Laryngoscope. 2011 Dec;121(12):2649-57. doi: 10.1002/lary.22376.
- Doğan M1,2, Polat H3, Yaşar M3, Kaya A3, Bayram A3, Şenel F4, Özcan İ3.Protective role of misoprostol against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Apr 6. [Epub ahead of print]
- Kalkanis, J. G., C. Whitworth, et al. (2004). "Vitamin E reduces cisplatin ototoxicity." Laryngoscope114(3): 538-42.
- Murphy D, Daniel SJ. Intratympanic Dexamethasone to Prevent Cisplatin Ototoxicity: A Guinea Pig Model. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011 Apr 26. [Epub ahead of print]
- Rybak LP, Husain K, Morris C, Whitworth C, Somani S. Effect of protective agents against cisplatin ototoxicity. Am J Otol 21:513-520, 2000
- Marshak T1, Steiner M, Kaminer M, Levy L, Shupak A. Prevention of Cisplatin-Induced Hearing Loss by Intratympanic Dexamethasone: A Randomized Controlled Study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Mar 11. [Epub ahead of print]
- Hess K. Vestibulotoxic drugs and other causes of acquired bilateral peripheral vestibulopathy.In Baloh RW, Halmagyi GH (Ed) Disorders of the Vestibular System. Oxford University Press, New York, 1996.
- Hybels RL. Drug Toxicity of the Inner ear. Med Clin North Am 1979 Mar;63(2):309-319.
- Podoshin L, Fradis M, Ben David J. Ototoxicity of ear drops in patients suffering from chronic otitis media. J Laryngol Otol 1989 Jan;103(1):46-50
Tympanostomy tube otorrhea in children: Causes Cross sensitivity penicillin ciprofloxacin dosage Hypersensitivity reactions to non beta-lactam
Journal Reviews ENT and Audiology News
Gentamicin sulfate - Drug Summary - t
The GoodRx Prescription Savings Blog
Ototoxic Medications - m
Gentamicin - Wikipedia
2017 Poster Authors and Abstracts CSU Annual
Antibiotics to Treat Prostatitis M
CIPRO (Ciprofloxacin) dosage, indication, interactions, side